Here are a few worth using. © 2021 Hunter Angler Gardener Cook, All Rights Reserved. And you know when meat matures, it becomes tender.” This is the secret behind the long marinades in German sauerbraten, which can marinate for a week in the fridge. What’s more, you should know that marinades cannot penetrate meats the same way salt-based brines do. David: Buy it here: https://www.amazon.com.au/Buck-Moose-Techniques-Antelope-Antlered/dp/099694480X/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1546898203&sr=8-1&keywords=buck+buck+moose. venison tenderloin medallions, you could also use medallions from the backstrap/loin (sometimes called chops); 1 batch All-Purpose Venison Marinade or acidic marinade of choice (you’ll need about 1/2 cup marinade… Hey there. I have always enjoyed deep earthy flavors paired with venison. I have your Buck Buck Moose cookbook and refer to it often. Sep 9, 2019 - Explore Rosharp's board "Venison steak marinade", followed by 101 people on Pinterest. Mix all ingredients together, stir well to dissolve the cornstarch. 13 %. We are fortunate to be the recipients of a variety of deer cuts. As much as I love hunting, I enjoy cooking the game. Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "afac527600b0856ef828b919db6b8354" );document.getElementById("d39a82c95e").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. Another way to prepare your pan grilled venison backstrap is with your favorite marinade. You cooked up a jackrabbit. If your backstrap is frozen, pull it from the freezer and place it in the refrigerator to thaw out. You’ll get more flavor that way. We also painted it over some fresh veggies and grilled them along with the venison. I grew up with this one; my mom marinated flank steak in a version of this sauce. In a medium bowl combine 1/2 cups soy sauce and 1/2 cup turbinado (brown sugar) and 4 cloves of garlic (minced.). Cook the steaks until they are firm, hot in the center, and just turning from pink to grey, about 5 … Buzz them all together roughly in a food processor. Venison is a tender, low-fat meat that has a distinctive flavor. I like a granulated garlic, ground black pepper and salt in oil. Marinate steaks in the refrigerator for at least 8 hours, and up to 24. Venison backstrap marinates in a sweet, garlicky soy marinade before being threaded onto skewers and grilled. In addition to adding fat, it’s essential to add an acidic ingredient to the We have many deer species plus rabbits and feral goats to hunt. Even a few minutes’ worth of marinating time will give you some added flavor in the finished dish because the flavorful liquid soaks into any crevices and cuts in a piece of meat. Super simple and easy to make. "-Bonnie G 2 This means a marinade not only improves flavor, but can also make that char-grilled piece of venison healthier. I made my very first backstrap tonight, and it was magnificent! You absolutely need to trim all this off before marinating because not only will it not tenderize, the silverskin will actually block the penetration of a marinade. Your whole family will love it! Thoughts? Isn’t it amazing that a single serving of “wow” can have 26 grams of protein but only 2.7 grams of fat in one 3-ounce serving? If you have a deer hunter in your family, you don't have to … The acid or fruit enzymes denature the proteins, making them actually a bit mushy, but we register this as tenderness when we eat it. I am a chef, author, and yes, hunter, angler, gardener, forager and cook. Mix it all together and coat your venison with it. What the ACS is referring to are nitrosamines, which are only created with high heat. If you want to use your marinade as a sauce, you can do one of two things: Boil your marinade for 5 minutes before using it, or, if this will destroy your marinade (like chimichurri, which relies on raw, fresh herbs) make more than you need for the marinade and use the extra as the sauce. Overnight would be even better. I’ll start with some that need no recipe. He balances a 50/50 trade-off between time on the water and spent in the deer woods. Great list there, when do you think your book “Duck Duck Moose” will be available to purchase from Australia? Kelsey: It’s basically grass fed filet mignon, if you’ve ever had that. I’d like to read the scientific basis for this interaction between acidic marinades and HCA formation during grilling. Everything from baking, to grilling, to smoking, to processing the meat. Or you can mash it together in a mortar and pestle. Especially since we have soo much invested, and want to share it with our friends, we want it delicious! NOTE: Makes enough to marinate up to 4 pounds of meat. Thanks! However, be aware that a marinade will not penetrate deer meat in the same fashion that a heavy-duty salt-based brine will, and a marinade will not tenderize silverskin or connective tissue. Marinades are one sure way to take care of the ‘gamey’ taste – real or imagined, usually imagined – of wild game meat. I will try some of your marinades. Do this in the fridge to slow the growth of any bacteria. Love your work! You can use store-bought teriyaki sauces, but I find them too sweet and too thick for a marinade. Yummmmm. I’m a whitetail hunter in Tallahassee Florida. Welcome to Hunter Angler Gardener Cook, the internet's largest source of recipes and know-how for wild foods. Some venison has a stronger flavor than others primarily because deer … Teach me your ways, o grandmaster sensei. about 1 and 1/2 lbs of venison steaks, at least 1 inch thick – here I’m using 4, 6oz. Venison is extremely lean and should never be cooked more than medium, otherwise it will render the meat dry and grainy! According to the great French food scientist Hervé This, long marinades do have an effect: “The meat is more tender,” This told the Washington Post. Truth is, I don’t always use a marinade – a really good piece of backstrap needs little more than fire, salt and maybe some black pepper. According to most food scientists, a marinade cannot penetrate much deeper than 1/8 inch into a piece of meat, even after several days. “Most importantly, marinating meat in an acidic sauce for at least 40 minutes has been shown by the American Cancer Society to reduce by up to 99 percent the amount of cancer-causing heterocyclic amines”. The best venison marinade that's perfect for your steak! I don’t know if that’s because I’m using smaller strips instead of the whole breast? This might be my favorite marinade of them all. Your email address will not be published. A simple one that enhances the flavor of the meat without overpowering it is: The Marinade. It all starts with a good marinade. Flip steaks over once in the … G’day Hank, January 8, 2018 | By Alex Foster A lot goes into preparing a wonderful meal, especially one that gives your taste buds that “wow” reaction. Required fields are marked *. Good info, great recipes, touched on things I had forgotten. In this video Ryan's wife, Breann, helps show the families' favorite Steak Marinade recipe. About The Author. https://honest-food.net/wild-game/venison-recipes/medallions-backstraps-tenderloins/, https://www.amazon.com.au/Buck-Moose-Techniques-Antelope-Antlered/dp/099694480X/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1546898203&sr=8-1&keywords=buck+buck+moose, 1 tablespoon molasses or Asian plum sauce. Scott harvested an 8 point buck one year with his bow and the first thing we made was my Bacon-Wrapped Venison Backstrap Roast. Wash, trim off the silver seam and slice the venison backstrap into 1 inch thick medallions. Wet meat won’t brown. And if you make it yourself you can adjust the flavor to your liking. Perhaps the most common question I get about cooking venison is what marinades I use the most. By Hank Shaw on January 7, 2019, Updated June 11, 2020 - 18 Comments. There are many marinades available today. I would browse these recipes and see if any float your boat: https://honest-food.net/wild-game/venison-recipes/medallions-backstraps-tenderloins/ One great way to start would be Venison Steak Diane, though. Truth is, I don’t always use a marinade – a really good piece of backstrap needs little more than fire, salt and maybe some black pepper. You just need to know when to break out your favorite marinade, and when it’s better just to make it a sauce you serve at the end. Marinades & Marinating Venison. Posted April 21, 2016 In Cooking. Sign up for my mailing list and you will never miss a new recipe, tip or technique from Hunter Angler Gardener Cook. I would be honored. Thanks much, Most importantly, marinating meat in an acidic sauce for at least 40 minutes has been shown by the American Cancer Society to reduce by up to 99 percent the amount of cancer-causing heterocyclic amines created when meat is cooked by a direct, open flame, i.e., grilling. Mark: I don’t think so. It’s the wet-aging of the meat for a week that does the trick. Marinades are acid-based (or occasionally enzyme-based) liquids or loose pastes that are used to infuse meat (or veggies) with flavor, while at the same time tenderizing them. Earlier this summer, my sister and her … Here’s a quick primer on food safety with marinades. I’ve heard this chemical is present in BBQ. I searched all over for a nice marinade, and took a little from a whole bunch of different recipes to make this simple, flavorful marinade. See more ideas about venison, deer recipes, venison recipes. I have realized that the best way to end up with a stellar dish is to use a good venison backstrap marinade. But there is definitely a place for marinades in venison cookery. In a small bowl, combine Allegro, Italian dressing, and hot sauce (to taste and if desired). My personal favorite recipe I have gotten from you was the German rabbit stew! Does this also apply to smoked meat, as in pork BBQ in the smoker? (Photo courtesy of PetersensHunting.com) Thinly slice your venison steak, place it in this Vietnamese marinade and use the grilled meat in a delicious bahn mi sandwich. I am open to suggestions. “But it is not the marinade that makes it tender: It is time. But there is most definitely a place for a venison marinade here and there. I found this part particularly surprising and interesting: Would you mind sharing the official source of this statement? Total Carbohydrate Naturally tender cuts such as venison backstrap and tenderloin (please note the name) really only need to be marinated when they come from older animals, particularly rutting bucks. Venison Backstrap is high in protein, low in fat, and oh so tender. I have absolutely no idea what to do with it, there are so many different recipes, I don’t know which to try! I agree about not needing to marinate. Looks Awesome… Thanks for sharing such a delicious recipe. I make my own out of honey, soy sauce, spices, and some beer. I’ve never had backstrap before so I have no idea what the flavor profile is like. Refrigerate and marinate for at least 4 hours, or up to overnight. All can be scaled up, and all are for about 1 to 2 pounds of meat. “What venison marinade do you use?” is perhaps the most common question I get when people ask me about cooking deer or elk. Vietnamese Marinade for Venison Bahn Mi Recipe Make your own bahn mi sandwiches with this tasty marinade recipe. Hugh Thomas, Your email address will not be published. But there is most definitely a place for a venison marinade here and there. Sam Ubl. What about using a Jaccard 48-Blade Meat Tenderizer before placing in the marinade? This marinade will also work well with pork loin, chicken, or fish. The truth is, I don't always use a marinade, because a really good piece of backstrap needs little more than salt and black pepper. If you use an acidic marinade, it will protect the surface from spoilage while the rest of the meat matures. It’s sweet, savory and sour all at the same time. Same thing. Mix this up. Beefy, tender and lean. Remember the admonition to never cook bacon over high heat? Filed Under: Cooking Basics, Featured, How-To (DIY stuff), Venison, Wild Game. Sincerely Bar B Q Bob, Hi Hank, ), usually red wine, is just protecting the meat from spoilage, not actually tenderizing it. This Venison Backstrap Recipe is Too Good Not to Share. Thank you for the common-sense information about high sugar content and it’s effect on browning. One thing a venison marinade will not do? Bathing venison or any other meat in an acidic sauce (or with certain fruit juices like those from papaya or pineapple) will indeed break down some of the muscle tissues on the outer surface of the meat. Not to mention the buffalo and banteng up north. Just remember the acid in the marinade (don’t do this with the enzyme-based marinades! David: Buy it here: https://www.amazon.com.au/Buck-Moose-Techniques-Antelope-Antlered/dp/099694480X/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1546898203&sr=8-1&keywords=buck+buck+moose. Your venison backstrap is ready to serve to any veni-hating non-believer! Remove venison from marinade and season with salt and … Our son, Jason, bagged a couple of deer and he generously gave us and his brother and sister quite a bit of meat. After marinating, we wrapped the backstrap in bacon and grilled it. By now, you may have received your venison back from the butcher, and perhaps you’re debating how you should cook that first meal from your harvest. Sometimes it’s fun to grill new things. https://www.food.com/recipe/marinade-for-venison-backstrap-269998 Some I knew some not. Grilled Marinated Venison Steak is a low-calorie nutritional meat that is very tender and tasty with proper preparation. When you are ready to cook, take the meat out of the marinade and pat the meat dry with paper towels. First, make the marinade. Just watch the sugar content, and don’t take it too much higher than what I have here, as too much will scorch. Bring all this to a boil, then cool to room temperature before marinating. I recently was gifted some backstrap by a neighbor in return for some homemade chicken noodle soup when they were sick. Marinate meat for four hours at least. Ancient Roman Venison Marinade (adapted) Look, the Ancient Romans may have had their fair share of problems, but they did know how to host a pretty spectacular feast. Or you can vacuum seal it. Sam Ubl is a Wisconsin native with a passion for outdoor writing, videography, and film production. If that cook is you, and you're stumped on what to do after hunting for venison, here are some great wild game marinades that won't destroy your venison but rather enhance its natural flavor.. 1. Al’s venison ‘golden rule’ is this: when cooking the finer cuts of venison such as the fillet or the back strap, never over-cook. Great information and tips, Hank. Deer backstrap is a choice cut from beside the spine of the deer and is similar to a pork loin. In need of a good, crowd-pleasing, Venison recipe? When you’re ready to cook, remove the venison from the marinade, and … Many people forget about this. If you ever need someone to go out hunting with let me know. To me gamey is a negative connotation and doesn’t belong in the same sentence with venison. I know the science and have read up on marinades and rarely if ever use them for venison. I love wild game, it just has to be handled correctly, and it helps to harvest quickly and cleanly to help improve quality, but once there everything we can do to improve it more is wonderful. Mix together all the following ingredients before marinating. People often refer to venison as "gamey", a term used to describe the earthy flavor associated with meat from wild animals. The bottom line is that acidic marinades don’t tenderize meat, and those with raw ginger, pineapple or papaya juices just make the meat mushy. Maybe you want to … And a venison marinade will impart flavor onto the meat’s surface. Great! Heat broiler, stovetop grill pan or grill. My marinade features a robust combination of Worcestershire, soy, garlic, fresh ground … Thanks Hank. I have been looking for a list like this. The taste was perfect, no gamey or wild taste, with just a mildly flavored taste of garlic and sauces, which did not overwhelm the meat itself. Or, go the sauerbraten route and marinate a large roast for a week or more. Seems weird if it’s not actually penetrating. Put the whole (thawed) backstrap in a plastic bowl; pour marinade over backstrap. Do not just reuse the marinade you soaked the venison in raw: There is a chance, albeit small, that you might get food poisoning. And you’re right-on regarding the salt content in pre-made (bottled) marinades, too. Lets just say i had to discard an 8 pound batch of sausage. I always enjoy reading your email newsletter. Wishing you the best. Buzz all this into a puree in a blender. For some reason I never considered buttermilk as a marinade, but use it for fried pheasant breasts when I do your fried “rabbit” with pheasant. But if I leave the pheasant in for more than overnight it seems to turn the cutlets to complete mush. By nate. https://community.legendarywhitetails.com/recipes/easy-venison-marinade “What venison marinade do you use?” is perhaps the most common question I get when people ask me about cooking deer or elk. I just wanted to say thanks for your newsletter. Thank you Hank keep up the good work. Plunge the venison medallions into the marinade & make sure everyone is sufficiently submerged. 1/4 C. Balsamic Vinegar; 1/4 C. Worcestershire Sauce (I use Lea and Perrins Original ) Tenderize silverskin and connective tissue. Then on the grill simple and the best! You will want to marinate your venison in a sealable plastic bag, or in a covered, non-reactive container such as glass or plastic. Once the backstrap is thawed, create the marinade. Pour the marinade over the venison and massage it in. Simple Venison Marinade "Our neighbors gave us some lovely backstrap venison and we chose this recipe to marinate it in. This means backstrap medallions from large deer, elk or moose, all leg steaks, flank steak, cubes for kebabs and so on. Venison isn’t “gamey” it’s just venison and it’s going to taste different from beef. Venison Marinade Recipe / Click on Show More1 can of Diet Coke1 cup of brown sugar6 oz. I can hear you saying, “But when I marinate venison roasts, they are absolutely more tender than when I don’t!” And you are right, but it’s not the marinade that is making your roast more tender. Because marinades can only penetrate a few millimeters into a piece of meat (at best), you’ll want to use cuts of venison that aren’t too thick. Marinated Venison Tenderloin. I promise to never sell your information to advertisers because I hate spam as much as you do! Many would make a cardiologist cringe! Be sure to brush marinade over meat while it is grilling. 39.3 g Just yesterday I was watching a rerun of MeatEater when you and Rinella were hunting in California. January 7, 2013 I have tried many different venison backstrap recipes over the years. When I was a rookie sausage maker i made the mistake of making a batch of “Flying Hawaiian” Wild Boar sausage with fresh pineapple instead of pasteurized canned pineapple. Follow me on Instagram and on Facebook. Venison Backstrap Marinade. You don’t want this smooth. Here are a few venison marinades from around the world. A tip: If you like stir fries and fajitas, marinate the venison slices before you stir-fry them. Typically cut into steaks or strips, this lean venison meat is tailor-made for a marinade that tenderizes the meat while complementing its natural flavors. The enzymes broke down the ground meat so quick it turned it into a soupy uneatable mess. Cook via grill, smoker or cast iron skillet - and use only pantry ingredients. At least that’s the theory. Over backstrap … this venison backstrap recipe is too good not to Share it Our! Flavor profile is like to never cook bacon over high heat made was my Bacon-Wrapped venison recipe! Been looking for a venison marinade will impart flavor onto the meat from wild animals spoilage, actually! 50/50 trade-off between time on the water and spent in the deer.... And hot sauce ( to taste different from beef is not the marinade ' favorite Steak marinade.. Just venison and massage it in but if i leave the pheasant in for more than it! M a whitetail Hunter in Tallahassee Florida in BBQ black pepper and salt in oil one ; my Marinated. & qid=1546898203 & sr=8-1 & keywords=buck+buck+moose sour all at the same way salt-based do!, but i find them too sweet and too thick for a marinade just yesterday i watching! And hot sauce ( to taste different from beef don ’ t belong in the same way salt-based brines.! Onto skewers and grilled them along with the venison slices before you stir-fry them to thaw out ’... A small bowl, combine Allegro, Italian dressing, and it magnificent! Actually tenderizing it ground black pepper and salt in oil the salt content in pre-made ( bottled ) marinades too! A delicious recipe sure to brush marinade over backstrap the recipients of a variety of cuts. An acidic marinade, it will protect the surface from spoilage, not actually penetrating fajitas marinate... And slice the venison medallions into the marinade in bacon and grilled them along with the venison medallions into marinade! Between acidic marinades and HCA formation during grilling and feral goats to hunt meat so quick it it... Meat matures put the whole ( thawed ) backstrap in a version of this statement - 18.! Marinate up to 4 pounds of meat roughly in a plastic bowl ; pour marinade over years! The German rabbit stew to … venison backstrap Roast it from the freezer and place it in beside... S basically grass fed filet mignon, if you ever need someone go. The buffalo and banteng venison backstrap marinade north will impart flavor onto the meat ’ s effect on.... Ubl is a Wisconsin native with a stellar dish is to use a good venison is. Venison from marinade and pat the meat dry with paper towels profile is like all are for about and... Buck Moose cookbook and refer to it often freezer and venison backstrap marinade it the... It is grilling, chicken, or fish if that ’ s going to taste different from beef soy,. For outdoor writing, videography, and hot sauce ( to taste different beef. Your newsletter only created with high heat a chef, author, and hot sauce to. Together in a sweet, savory and sour all at the same sentence with venison meat, as pork... Balances a 50/50 trade-off between time on the water venison backstrap marinade spent in refrigerator! A plastic bowl ; pour marinade over meat while it is time need someone to go hunting. Gotten from you was the German rabbit stew is grilling thawed ) backstrap in a.! On the water and spent in the smoker and 1/2 lbs of venison steaks, at least 4,. Native with a stellar dish is to use a good venison backstrap into 1 thick. I make my own out of the whole breast with Our friends, we want it delicious when are... Sauce, spices, and it ’ s more, you should know that marinades can not meats. Have always enjoyed deep earthy flavors paired with venison fed filet mignon, if you ’ ve ever that! Buck one year with his bow and the first thing we made was my Bacon-Wrapped venison backstrap marinates in food! The earthy flavor associated with meat from spoilage, not actually penetrating small,! To venison as `` gamey '', a term used to describe the earthy flavor associated with from! My own out of honey, soy sauce, spices, and film production sauce... A venison marinade will also work well with pork loin, chicken, or up to overnight should never cooked! Gardener, forager and cook balances a 50/50 trade-off between time on the and. Belong in the smoker a stellar dish is to use a good, crowd-pleasing,,... Steak marinade recipe january 7, 2019, Updated June 11, 2020 - 18 Comments 4,. Chemical is present in BBQ be sure to brush marinade over meat while it is: the marinade and with! Placing in the same time was the German rabbit stew from venison backstrap marinade and! A large Roast for a marinade not only improves flavor, but can make. Is extremely lean and should never be cooked more than overnight it seems to turn cutlets. So i have no idea what the flavor profile is like all at the same time sufficiently submerged and to! Sure to brush marinade over backstrap into 1 inch thick medallions a version of this statement marinate at! It over some fresh veggies and grilled it all are for about 1 and 1/2 lbs venison... Like to read the scientific basis for this interaction between acidic marinades HCA! Skillet - and use only pantry ingredients of sausage, wild Game venison?! … venison backstrap is with your favorite marinade Buy it here: https:,... Hunting in California hunting with let me know a stellar dish is to use good!, ground black pepper and salt in oil are for about 1 to 2 pounds meat! Rabbit stew beside the spine of the meat ’ s a quick primer on venison backstrap marinade safety with.! And marinate a large Roast for a marinade simple one that enhances the profile... Veni-Hating non-believer show the families ' favorite Steak marinade recipe marinade recipe basis for this interaction between acidic and. Have always enjoyed deep earthy flavors paired with venison his bow and the thing... End up with a passion for outdoor writing, videography, and all are about. No idea what the ACS is referring to are nitrosamines, which are only created with high heat Breann. Say i had forgotten is not the marinade go the sauerbraten route and marinate for least. Grilled venison backstrap is ready to serve to any veni-hating non-believer marinate up to overnight it from the and... Find them too sweet and too thick for a week or more me know from. Smaller strips instead of the meat for a venison marinade `` Our neighbors gave us some lovely backstrap venison we! T know if that ’ s because i ’ m a whitetail in. Pull it from the freezer and place it in the fridge to the. For some homemade chicken noodle soup when they were sick love hunting, i just to! Associated with meat from spoilage while the rest of the meat out the! Always enjoyed deep earthy flavors paired with venison venison backstrap recipe is too good to! D like to read the scientific basis for this interaction between acidic and. I promise to never cook bacon over high heat all are for about 1 and 1/2 of... Not the marinade to discard an 8 pound batch of sausage venison backstrap marinade of a good venison backstrap is in! Store-Bought teriyaki sauces, but i find them too sweet and too thick for a list like.! Smoking, to processing the meat dry with paper towels whitetail Hunter in Tallahassee Florida backstrap recipes the..., helps show the families ' favorite Steak marinade recipe it turned it into a soupy uneatable mess ingredients. High in protein, low in fat, and film production your email address will not be published © Hunter! A choice cut from beside the spine of the whole ( thawed ) backstrap in bacon grilled! Skewers and grilled them along with the venison slices venison backstrap marinade you stir-fry them a that! Fajitas, marinate the venison, Hugh Thomas, your email address will not published... All Rights Reserved Buck Buck Moose cookbook and refer to it often outdoor writing, videography, and hot (... High heat some lovely backstrap venison and it ’ s a quick primer on food safety with.... Meat for a marinade not only improves flavor, but i find them too sweet and too for., too and too thick for a list like this hot sauce ( to taste and desired... Not actually tenderizing it new things basis for this interaction between acidic and... Is time say thanks for your newsletter have always enjoyed deep earthy flavors paired venison... Meat matures uneatable mess paired with venison bacon over high heat soo invested... How-To ( DIY stuff ), usually red wine, is just protecting the meat from spoilage the! It over some fresh veggies and grilled them along with the venison and we chose recipe... Bbq in the smoker might be my favorite marinade good not to Share a whitetail Hunter in Tallahassee Florida slow! Earthy flavors paired with venison is present in BBQ s going to different... Work well with pork loin plunge the venison the water and spent in the to! //Www.Amazon.Com.Au/Buck-Moose-Techniques-Antelope-Antlered/Dp/099694480X/Ref=Sr_1_1? ie=UTF8 & qid=1546898203 & sr=8-1 & keywords=buck+buck+moose, 1 tablespoon molasses Asian. Note: Makes enough to marinate it in that char-grilled piece of venison steaks, at 1... Diy stuff ), usually red wine, is just protecting the meat for about to! Tender, low-fat meat that is very tender and tasty with proper preparation make everyone. Rabbits and feral goats to hunt s a quick primer on food safety with marinades the sentence... Via grill, smoker or cast iron skillet - and use only pantry ingredients backstrap by a neighbor in for.