Radiology. 2 MRI Techniques for the Identification of Neuronal Migration Disorders Ultrasound CT MR. 2007;28 (6): 424-36. Focal hippocampal dysfunction initiates electrophysiologic seizures and impairs interictal cognition in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (1). This case illustrates a typical clinical presentation followed by characteristic MRI features for hippocampal atrophy and further treatment and pathology confirmation. As a result of neuronal loss, the extracellular space is enlarged and thus diffusion of water molecules is greater on the affected side, resulting in increased values on the affected side (higher signal on ADC). J Neurosurg Pediatr. One feature of MTS is hippocampal volume loss. MTLE shows a good surgical prognosis, with satisfactory seizures control in 60–80% of the patients [ 3 ]. Neurology. The etiology is unknown, but there is a relationship between MTS and prolonged febrile seizures earlier in life, complicated delivery and developmental processes. The relationship, if any, of mesial temporal sclerosis with febrile seizures is controversial, made all the more difficult due to the relative insensitivity of imaging and the difficulty in establishing whether a particular seizure was truly febrile. 9. J Nucl Med. Clinical, imaging, and pathologic features were retrospectively reviewed in 40 mTLE patients with postoperative follow-up (10 with AE and 30 with MTS). This article requires a subscription to view the full text. When severe and long standing, additional associated findings include 4: Additional 3D volumetric studies can be performed, and although time consuming to post-process may be more sensitive to subtle hippocampal volume loss. Although comparing left to right side is easiest, it must be remembered that up to 10% of cases are bilateral, and thus if symmetry is the only feature being evaluated, many cases may be misinterpreted as normal. Check for errors and try again. Also diffuse cerebellar atrophy, which is likely secondary A 6-year-old boy with a 5-year history of intractable complexpartial seizure was referred by his neurologist for a presurgicalevaluation of a brain locus that may have triggered the seizures.The seizures were described as starting with vocalizations thatwould quickly convert to convulsions of all four extremities.Afterward, the patient would become aphasic or dysarthric forapproximately 1 minute; then the patient would become sleepy. Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Mesial Temporal Sclerosis Toxic, Metabolic, … It was first described in 1880 by Wilhelm Sommer. 5. Kasasbeh A, Hwang EC, Steger-May K et-al. Unable to process the form. Note: This case has been tagged as "legacy" as it no longer meets image preparation and/or other case publication guidelines. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. 28-year-old male with a long-standing history of seizures localizing to the inferomedial right temporal lobe on EEG. Fast Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Compared with T2-Weighted Spin-Echo in the Magnetic Resonance Diagnosis of Mesial Temporal Sclerosis Investigative Radiology, Vol. In interictal periods, conversely, perfusion is reduced 5. MESIAL TEMPORAL SCLEROSIS The term mesial temporal sclerosis signifies scarring and volume loss of medial temporal structures: the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the parahippocampal gyrus (including the entorhinal cortex). Controversy exists as to the causative mechanism: is mesial temporal sclerosis a result of temporal lobe epilepsy or vice versa 5? The disabling seizures associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are typical … Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET), reduced hippocampal volume: hippocampal atrophy. Most patients present with complex partial temporal lobe epilepsy. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a common pathologic finding in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. SPECT (Tc-99m HMPAO or ECD)9 and PET (F18-FDG) imaging are also a useful adjuncts, with both ictal and interictal scans demonstrating abnormalities: Other causes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) should be considered, especially as small temporal lobe cortical tumors can have similar appearances. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS)is the most common association with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Juni JE1, Waxman AD, Devous MD Sr, Tikofsky RS, Ichise M, Van Heertum RL, Holman BL, Carretta RF, Chen CC. MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis in sporadic "benign" temporal lobe epilepsy. In patients who are refractory to medical management temporal lobectomy or selective amygdalohippocampectomy may be performed. 2006;66 (4): 562-5. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), also commonly referred to as hippocampal sclerosis, is the most common association w… | Radiology, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Epilepsy Apr 2, 2017 - Left temporal lobe atrophy including extensive sclerosis of the hippocampus consistent with a structural cause for epilepsy. Association of magnetic resonance imaging identification of mesial temporal sclerosis with pathological diagnosis and surgical outcomes in children following epilepsy surgery. Thin section angled coronal sequences at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus are required, to minimize volume averaging. Rarely MTS can be detected in children during the first decade of life, but is not commonly found until adolescence. 1. These findings, atrophy and hyperintensity, are often re- ferred to as the two primary MR findings of mesial temporal sclerosis. MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the hippocampus, however dedicated TLE protocol needs to be performed if good sensitivity and specificity is to be achieved 5. The hippocampal formation is not uniformly affected, with the dentate gyrus, and the CA1, CA4 and to a lesser degree CA3 sections of the hippocampus being primarily involved 4. 820 Jorie Blvd., Suite 200 Oak 32, No. Asymmetry of the mesial temporal lobes suggesting left mesial temporal sclerosis. Coronal volume and coronal high resolution T2WI/FLAIR are best to diagnose MTS. Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), also commonly referred to as hippocampal sclerosis, is the most common association with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) 2,3,5. A localised aggregate of neurocytic cells is observed, equivalent to focal microdysgenesis. MR spectroscopy findings typically represent neuronal dysfunction 5: MR perfusion demonstrates similar changes to SPECT (see below) with blood perfusion depending on when the scan is obtained. Chan S, Erickson JK, Yoon SS. PET FDG: low metabolism. Neurology. All o… Tarkka R, Pääkkö E, Pyhtinen J et-al. 2003;60 (2): 215-8. -. Detecting mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is important for the evaluation of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy as it often guides surgical intervention. MRI: T2 hyperintense. {"url":"/signup-modal-props.json?lang=us\u0026email="}, {"containerId":"expandableQuestionsContainer","displayRelatedArticles":true,"displayNextQuestion":true,"displaySkipQuestion":true,"articleId":1664,"mcqUrl":"https://radiopaedia.org/articles/mesial-temporal-sclerosis/questions/341?lang=us"}. Often mentioned, but probably one of the least specific findings, is enlargement of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle 5. 1996 May;199(2):367-373. Histologically there is neuronal cell loss, gliosis and sclerosis. Follow up of children with febrile seizures does not demonstrate significant increased incidence of temporal lobe epilepsy 3. Access to this article can also be purchased. Final diagnosis:  mesial temporal sclerosis, ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads. It is seen in up to 65% of autopsy studies, although significantly less on imaging. Society of Nuclear Medicine. When assessing this condition coronal T2 small FOV images are ideal to assess the hippocampus. Imaging: 15% bilateral, atrophy of hippocampus / amygdala / fornix / mamillary body. Purpose: To assess imaging, clinical, and pathological features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients with amygdala enlargement (AE) in comparison with those with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Procedure guideline for brain perfusion SPECT using technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals. In this patient with chronic seizure disorder, we see volume less of the right hippocampus with distortion of the normal morphology, increased T2/FLAIR hyperintensity, and … In children with newly diagnosed epilepsy, only ~ 1% have evidence of MTS on imaging 3. Mesial temporal sclerosis: Diagnosis with fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery versus spin-echo MR imaging. The relationship, if any, of mesial temporal sclerosis with febrile seizures is controversial, made all the more difficult due to the relative insensitivity of imaging and the difficulty in establishing whether a particular seizure was truly febrile. 1998 May;39(5):923-6. Methods: Clinical, imaging, and pathologic features were retrospectively reviewed in 40 mTLE patients with postoperative follow-up (10 with AE and 30 with MTS). Selected images demonstrate a small right hippocampus with increased T2 signal consistent with right-sided mesial temporal sclerosis. Materials and ADVERTISEMENT: Radiopaedia is free thanks to our supporters and advertisers. Gadolinium is not required 5. Complex partial seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis: evaluation with fast spin-echo MR imaging. Jack CR, Rydberg CH, Krecke KN, Trenerry MR, Parisi JE, Rydberg JN et al. Esclerosis temporal mesial Mesial temporal sclerosis Oscar F. Valdivieso C.ª*, Verónica Mota G.,ª Ana L. Velasco M., b Esteban Figueroa P., c y José Luis Criales C.ª ª … The volumes and signal intensity … Alternate names … 2003;3 (4): 115-118. abnormal morphology: loss of internal architecture (interdigitations of hippocampus), increased signal and or atrophy of the anterior thalamic nucleus, increased signal and/or reduction in the volume of the, dilatation of temporal horn and temporal lobe atrophy, collateral white matter and entorhinal cortex atrophy, loss of grey-white matter interface in the anterior temporal lobe, decreased NAA and decreased NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios, decreased MI in ipsilateral temporal lobe, increased lipid  and lactate soon after as seizure. Radiology. 8. Furthermore, in adults 3-10% of cases of mesial temporal sclerosis demonstrate bilateral changes 5 even though symptoms may be unilateral. 3. Although the etiology of MTS remains controversial, there is now a considerable … Objective: To search for [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET patterns predictive of long-term prognosis in surgery for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Shinnar S. Febrile Seizures and Mesial Temporal Sclerosis. Bronen R. MR of mesial temporal sclerosis: how much is enough? ADVERTISEMENT: Radiopaedia is free thanks to our supporters and advertisers. Unable to process the form. Limbic system abnormalities associated with mesial temporal sclerosis: a model of chronic cerebral changes due to seizures. Sections of the mesial structures confirm mesial temporal sclerosis, which is represented by a profound depletion of neurones within CA1. 34, No. May 18, 2015 - Typical appearances of mesial temporal sclerosis. Camacho DL, Castillo M. MR imaging of temporal lobe epilepsy. Mesial Temporal Sclerosis. Typical appearances of mesial temporal sclerosis. ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewer/no ads, Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. The radiology information system data base was surveyed for the term “mesial temporal sclerosis” during a 53-month period (between January 2009 and May 2013) to find patients who had MR imaging studies. Subpial gliosis is evident. The lesion most commonly reported in surgical and autopsy series of mesial TLE is hippocampal sclerosis (HS), although temporal lobe encephalomalacia, neoplasia, vascular malformations, and developmental malformations often occur in patients with TLE (2–4). Hippocampal sclerosis (Redirected from Mesial temporal sclerosis) Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a neuropathological condition with severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA-1 (Cornu Ammonis area 1) and subiculum of the hippocampus. We included 46 The patient had been on multiple seizure medications in thepast. Labate A, Ventura P, Gambardella A et-al. 17 (5): 1095-110. Most patients present with complex partial temporal lobe epilepsy. 1998;19 (1): 15-8. Conversely, due to neuronal dysfunction and swelling, diffusion is restricted following a seizure, and thus values are lower 5. No other diagnostic neuropathologic findings are seen. {"url":"/signup-modal-props.json?lang=gb\u0026email="}. Purpose To improve diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) by using MR fingerprinting and compare with visual assessment of T1- and T2-weighted MR images. Neuroradiology Case of the Week Case 105 from University of Rochester cases. 1993 Dec;189(3):835-42. 5 Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients Treated Surgically for Medically Intractable Epilepsy: Results in 291 Patients Treated at Mayo Clinic Rochester Between July 1972 and March 1985 AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. Follow up of children with febrile seizures does not demonstrate signifi… Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a specific pattern of hippocampal neuronal loss accompanied by gliosis and atrophy. Ammon horn sclerosis—defined as loss of pyramidal neurons predominantly in the cornu ammon… The mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is highly refractory to pharmacological treatment [], and it is the main group of epilepsy referred to the tertiary care hospitals for surgical treatment []. Semin. Mesial temporal sclerosis D H Jogi MB BCh, FCRad (Diag) (SA), FRCR (Lond) N17 East Rand Private Community Hospital Springs M Patel MB ChB, FCRad (Diag) (SA) Department of Radiology Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital The hallmark of mesial temporal sclerosis on MR imaging is an atrophic hippocampus associated with hyperintense signal on long-repetition-time se- quences confined to the hippocampus (5–10). TLE is initially managed medically with anti-epileptic agents. Sections of the mesial structures show extensive mesial temporal sclerosis, represented by neuronal loss in sector CA1, with less mild neuronal loss in sectors CA3 … Epilepsy Curr. During the peri-ictal phases, perfusion is increased, not only in the mesial temporal lobe but often in large parts of temporal lobe and hemisphere. 6. Anterior temporal lobectomy is successful in 75-90% of patients with MTS. Radiographics. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of human epilepsy, and its pathophysiological substrate is usually hippocampal sclerosis, the most common epileptogenic lesion encountered in patients with epilepsy. 7. From the case: Mesial temporal sclerosis MRI T2 The right hippocampus is markedly smaller than the left with loss of the normal internal architecture and diffuse T2 high signal which involves the body and tail. This case was donated to Radiopaedia.org by Radswiki.net Note: This case has been tagged as "legacy" as it no longer meets image preparation and/or other case publication guidelines. 2012;9 (5): 552-61. Primer - Neuroradiology - Congenital Diseases. No other diagnostic neuropathologic findings are seen. Here in this case there's a typical appearance of mesial temporal sclerosis in the form of reduced size of the right hippocampus with increased signal on T2 and FLAIR images. 2. Up to a third of patients with established refractory temporal lobe epilepsy have a history of seizures in childhood at the time of fever 3. Febrile seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis: No association in a long-term follow-up study. Interesting Radiology Cases from Daily Practice and a Personal Reference Thursday, May 6, 2010 Mesial Temporal Sclerosis Posted by Radiologist at 11:24 AM Email This BlogThis! If anything, care must be taken not to allow an enlarged horn to trick you into thinking the hippocampus is reduced in size. The radiology information system data base was surveyed for the term “mesial temporal sclerosis” during a 53-month period (between January 2009 and May 2013) to find patients who had MR imaging studies. Subpial gliosis is evident. 4. T2 relaxometry may also be useful in detecting cases of hippocampal sclerosis 5. To assess imaging, clinical, and pathological features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients with amygdala enlargement (AE) in comparison with those with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). The patient went on to have a hippocampectomy. A localised aggregate of neurocytic cells is observed, equivalent to focal microdysgenesis. In five patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, the authors verified the precision and reproducibility of hippocampal segmentations with deformation-based magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. 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